Often used for very high loads at small deflections or, utilizing nonlinear load deflection characteristic bellevilles can be used to maintain a constant force.
Used to apply moderate thrust loads when radial space is limited. The number of waves will be three or more. The spring rate is proportional to the number of waves raised to the fourth power.
Used to exert a relatively light thrust load, often to absorb axial end play. Commonly used in seals, motors and bearings.